استفاده از جمله مجهول (passive voice)
در جمله مجهول، مفعول جمله اکتیو تبدیل به فاعل می شود. سپس باید از فعل be در زمان مورد نیاز خود استفاده کرده و پس از آن حالت گذشته فعل اصلی را اضافه کنیم. در جمله مجهول مفعول، فاعل گیرنده فعل است نه فاعل فعل. برای فهم بیشتر موضوع به مثالهای زیر توجه کنید.
They take the photos in Africa. (active)
The photos are taken in Africa. (passive)
نحوه استفاده از افعال مجهول با زمان های مختلف را میتوانید در جدول زیر مشاهده می کنید.
معلوم یا اکتیو
I keep the butter in the fridge.
The butter is kept in the fridge.
is being kept
John is keeping my house tidy.
My house is being kept tidy.
Mary kept her schedule meticulously.
Mary's schedule was kept meticulously.
was being kept
The theater was keeping a seat for you.
A seat was being kept for you.
have been kept
I have kept all your old letters.
All your old letters have been kept.
had been kept
He had kept up his training regimen for a month.
His training regimen had been kept up for a month.
will be kept
Mark will keep the ficus.
The ficus will be kept.
would be kept
If you told me, I would keep your secret.
If you told me, your secret would be kept.
would have kept
would have been kept
I would have kept your bicycle here if you had left it with me.
Your bicycle would have been kept here if you had left it with me.
to be kept
She wants to keep the book.
The book wants to be kept.
to have kept
to have been kept
Judy was happy to have kept the puppy.
The puppy was happy to have been kept.
Present Participle & Gerund
I have a feeling that you may be keeping a secret.
I have a feeling that a secret may be being kept.
having been kept
Having kept the bird in a cage for so long, Jade wasn't sure it could survive in the wild.
The bird, having been kept in a cage for so long, might not survive in the wild.
چه زمانی از حالت مجهول استفاده کنیم؟
در زبان انگلیسی، زمانی که نمیدانیم چه کسی انجام دهنده کار است یا نمیخواهیم بگوییم که چه کسی کار را انجام داده است یا کار توسط چه چیزی انجام شده است، از حالت مجهول استفاده میکنیم. مثالهای زیر با دقت ملاحظه کنید.
A bank was robbed yesterday. (=We don’t know who robbed the bank.)
He was arrested last night. (=It’s obvious that the police arrested him.)
I have been told that you insulted my brother. (=I don’t want to say who told me.)
Jurassic Park was filmed by Spielberg in 1993. (=I’m talking about Jurassic Park and not about Spielberg.)